Biomat has developed immunotoxicity surfaces for ELISA test.
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is an effective method to measure antibodies as it allows to collect samples serially compared to other methods and minimizing the quantities of reagents and antisera needed in the assay.
The Biomat products are 96 well microplates coated with KLH (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin), Tetanus Toxoid, DNP (Dinitrophenol) or TNP (Trinitrophenol) and a protein to block non-specific binding sites and to maintain stable activity.
The preparation of the capture antigen that is coated on the plates is considered critical. That is where Biomat 25+ years of experience in coating services brings unique value to the market.
IMMUNOTOXOCITY SURFACES USES
These plates are ideal for to set up ELISA IgM and IgG assays to be used as biomarkers of immunotoxicity because they will measure levels IgM and IgG of αKLH, αDNP, αTNP and αTetanus toxoid in your samples.
KLH can be used as vaccine carrier protein acting as the hapten carrier part of the vaccine component. In addition KLH can be used as a highly immunogenic antigen in order to assess the immune competence of an organism and as a carrier of low molecular mass peptide and haptens, such as oligosaccharides, gangliosides or (glyco)peptides, designed to facilitate antibody production.
DINITROPHENOL and TRINITRPHENOL
Dinitrophenol and trinitrophenol are haptens that can be attached to carrier proteins such as KLH (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin) or ovalbumin. When one of these complexes is injected into appropriate animal models it produces an immune response in which changes in the levels of anti-DNP (or anti-TNP) IgM and IgG are measured. Thanks to these changes, the researchers can assess the impact of pharmacologic or genetic manipulations on the studied immune system.
Tetanus, commonly called lockjaw, is a serious bacterial disease that affects muscles and nerves. It is characterized by muscle stiffness that usually involves the jaw and neck that then progresses to involve other parts of the body. This disease is caused by a neurotoxin from deep wound infection with Clostridium tetani. The use of this product can find application to set up assays where the level of anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies present in biological samples are measured spectrophotometrically.
Anti-KLH, anti-tetanus toxoid, anti-DNP, and anti-TNP IgM and IgG are routinely used as biomarkers of immunotoxicity.
In preclinical studies, animals are immunized with an antigen such as KLH while being dosed with a drug candidate. The levels of anti-KLH IgM and IgG are determined in serum or plasma collected at 5-7 or 14-21 days and compared with those in a control group that was not exposed to the drug. A decrease in anti-KLH levels in the treatment group provides evidence of immunosuppression.