The Biomat 96 Well Platesfor Immunotoxicity Elisa Test are coated with KLH (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin), Tetanus Toxoid, DNP (Dinitrophenol) or TNP (Trinitrophenol) . These plates are ideal to set up ELISA IgM and IgG assays to be used as biomarkers of immunotoxicity.
KLH can be either used as vaccine carrier protein acting as the hapten carrier part of the vaccine component or as a highly immunogenic antigen in order to assess the immune competence of an organism and as a carrier of low molecular mass peptide and haptens, such as oligosaccharides, gangliosides or (glyco)peptides, designed to facilitate antibody production.
Dinitrophenol and trinitrophenol are haptens that can be attached to carrier proteins such as KLH (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin) or ovoalbumin; when one of this complex is injected into appropriate animal models, produce an immune response which is measured as changes in the levels of anti DNP (or anti TNP) IgM and IgG. Thanks to these changes, the researchers can assess the impact of pharmacologic or genetic manipulations on the studied immune system.
Tetanus, commonly called lockjaw, is a serious bacterial disease that affects muscles and nerves. It is characterized by muscle stiffness that usually involves the jaw and neck that then progresses to involve other parts of the body. This disease is caused by neurotoxin from deep wound infection with Clostridium tetani. The use of this product can find application to set up assays where the level of anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies present in biological samples are measured spectrophotometrically.
Anti-KLH, anti-tetanus toxoid, anti-DNP and anti-TNP IgM and IgG are routinely used as biomarkers of immunotoxicity.